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   2013| July-September  | Volume 8 | Issue 3  
    Online since May 16, 2014

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Complications and management of hair dye poisoning in Khartoum
AA Elgamel, NO Ahmed
July-September 2013, 8(3):146-152
DOI:10.4103/1858-5000.132603  
Introduction: Paraphenylenediamine (PPD) is the major cause of intoxication in Sudan with high morbidity and mortality rate among the intoxicated victims. We here PPD poisoning studied in terms of mode of poisoning, case fatality rate, clinical presentation, management and complications. Methodology: This is a retrospective prospective study on 200 patients with hair dye poisoning who presented to Khartoum teaching hospital in the period from June 2008 to December 2008. Results: We reached to results that in the sample of 200 patients studied, (80.5%) were females and (19.5%) males. The ages of these patients ranged between 6 month - 57 years. Most of them were from Khartoum state (98.5%) and most of them were single (74%). About 51% had history of psychological problems. Most of them arrived immediately to the hospital (90%). Oral route is common route of administration of PPD (96%). The main causes of poisoning were suicidal attempts which occurred in (76%), accidental (22.5%) and homicidal (1.5%). The accessibility of dye to those patients was from local market accounts for about (47.9%), home (23.5%), relatives (22%) and other places (7.5%). Types of dye used were Indian (38.5%), Stone (42%) and Began account about (19.5%). PPD was detected in urine in (36%). There was impairment of renal function test using urea in (22%). Creatinine was abnormal in (23%). Serum electrolytes (sodium, potassium, Calcium) were abnormal in (11%).Uric acid was abnormal in (19.5%) and those who developed renal failure were (20.5%). The most common presentations were ingestion of dye (85.5%), tachycardia in (58%), tachypnea in (31.5%), vomiting in (31%), angioneuratic edema in (22.5%), abdominal pain (22%), enlarge tongue (18%), facial edema (14%) and loin pain in (7%) of the cases. The complications were respiratory distress in (22.5%), acute renal failure in (20.5%), cardiac problem in (1%) and liver problem in (0.5%). The medical treatment and emergency tracheostomy tend to decrease the mortality rate to only (3.5%). Relationship too many parameters were discussed. Recommendation: We recommended that may assist in decreasing the number of cases as health education about the danger of Hair dye that should be provided at the level of the community through all methods of mass media. Restriction should be made on the trade of Hair dye with more support analytical equipments in hospitals.
  8,882 427 -
Structure and physical properties of flowering plants of the genus hibiscus
Nisreen Awad Eltahir, Mohamed A. Siddig, Abubaker A. Siddig, Hajer Adam
July-September 2013, 8(3):135-139
DOI:10.4103/1858-5000.132597  
Introduction: Hibiscus is a genus of flowering plants in the mallow family, Malvacease. It is quite large, containing several hundred species that are native to warm-temperate and have many medical benefits, for example, hibiscus drink lowers high blood pressure. Materials and Methods: Flowering plants of hibiscus were used in this study. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Fourier Transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used as analytical techniques. The XRF results indicated that, hibiscus has contained Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca), Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu), Bromine (Br), and Strontium (Sr). Results: The FTIR spectra of hibiscus showed a broad and strong absorption band in the range1145-2926 cm -1 , and these absorptions were assigned to the different stretching vibrations. The conductivity and dielectric properties of hibiscus were measured as function of frequency. The conductivity was found to decrease with frequency while the opposite behavior was observed in case of dielectric. In order to investigate the optical properties, solutions with different concentration of hibiscus were prepared. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV) was used to obtain the absorption for different samples with different concentration. Conclusion: The absorption was found to increase with the increase of concentration of hibiscus.
  7,440 315 1
Evaluation of the technical specifications of computerized tomography scanners in Jazan
Saeed Taha Mohamed Ali, Mahmoud Mohmed Hamad, Caroline Edward Ayad, Elsafi Ahmed Abdalla, Abdelmoneem Saeed Ahmed
July-September 2013, 8(3):159-166
DOI:10.4103/1858-5000.132611  
Introduction : good quality management for computerized Tomography (CT) scanners is essential to safe and efficient CT units, providing quality clinical images, maintaining patient and staff radiation doses as low as reasonably achievable. Aims : to evaluate the technical specifications of (CT) scanners in Jazan region in the period from 2011-2013. Materials and Methods : 13 CT scanners have been evaluated; 2 of them are in private sectors and the rest in public hospitals. The Technical specifications of CT scanners were assessed using template issued by ImPACT (Imaging Performance Assessment of CT scanners). Results : When comparing the 11 public scanners age with guidelines rules of European Coordination Committee of the Radiological and Electro medical Industries (ECCREI); it showed that scanners of Jazan region are within lifecycle guidelines, the total cumulative number of scanners since 1984 to 2013 are 15 scanners, 4 of them were replaced and the rest under use, multi detector CT scanners replaced most of the single detector scanners. for public CT scanners ; results show that all of the scanners are 3 rd generation, gantry bores are arranged between70-80cm, the x-ray tube inventory showed that there is no dual source CT scanner in the region and the anode storage heat capacity ranged from (3-8MHU) except Siemens 64slices and 20slices reached up to (30MHU). All of scanners in the region are built in solid state, image reconstruction time display per second is ranged from 1-40slice/seconds, advance clinical application software are available among the scanners. Jazan region CT scanners have a high capability and their technical specifications are in a rapid pace in developments that impacting on performance which depends on trade-off between image quality and patient dose.
  5,352 363 1
Assessment of creatinine and urea blood levels in healthy volunteers
Shaza M. Ahamed, Gad Allah Modawe, BadrEldin Elsanni, Mansaur A. Ballal
July-September 2013, 8(3):153-155
DOI:10.4103/1858-5000.132609  
Introduction: Endogenous creatinine and urea are protein metabolism. Their levels in the blood reflect status of kidney Function. Aim: This study aimed to assess the serum creatinine and urea levels normal Sudanese adults Females in the University of Gezira, to identify influence of age, tribe and menstrual cycle on the level of their parameters. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 270 females of ages ranged between 18-40 year's. Blood samples were collected from all of them after their consents. Serum samples were taken and creatinine and urea levels were analyzed using specterophotometeric methods. Results: The results showed that the (mean ± SD) serum creatinine and Urea levels were (0.82 ± 0.10 mg/dl) and (20.2 ± 4.7 mg/dl) respectively. Serum urea but not creatinine levels were significantly different (P = 0.04) for the different ages. Serum creatinine and urea levels varied with ethnic group and menstrual cycle. Conclusion: The results indicated that the mean levels of both these protein metabolites were within the ranges of their values for the normal kidney function.
  5,256 271 -
Evaluation of renal functions using isotopic renogram and biochemical tests
Mohamed Yousef, Suliman Salih, Abdelmoneim Sulieman, Naji Ali, Abdalla Ahmed
July-September 2013, 8(3):167-169
DOI:10.4103/1858-5000.132612  
Introduction: Radionuclide renography is now very important diagnostic tool comparable to other diagnostic modalities for the evaluation of renal diseases. Aim: This study was carried out to assess the role of radionuclide renography and biochemical test in the evaluation of the renal function. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 samples with a history of renal disease were included in this study. Out of a total 50, 31 were males and 19 were females, their age ranged between 9 and 79 years and most of the patients were in the age group above 46 years, weight ranged from 22 to 97 kg, mean (standard deviation [SD]) 67.32 (17.203). Height ranged from 125 to 185 cm, mean (SD) 163.07 (12.573). Radionuclide renography and biochemical test were done for all patients in the Radiation and Isotope Center of Khartoum in the period from March 2011 to October 2011. Results: In case of radionuclide renography, total glomerular filtration rate (GFR) ranged from 6.64 to 130.70, mean (SD) 65.87 (31.30) and the biochemical test showed that (10%) of patients with abnormal serum creatinine level and (12%) with abnormal serum urea level. The serum urea level was normal in 44 patients, but in the renogram 19 patients were abnormal (both kidneys GFR), 14 patients were abnormal (right kidney GFR) and 8 patients were abnormal (left kidney GFR). A total of 45 patients had normal serum creatinine level, but in the renogram 18 patients were abnormal (both kidneys GFR), 16 patients were abnormal (right kidney GFR) and 8 patients were abnormal (left kidney GFR). Conclusion: It is concluded that both isotopes renogram technique and biochemical test are very important in the evaluation of renal function.
  3,454 259 -
Phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of Capparis decidua stems
Amira M Nour, Y. M. A. El-imam
July-September 2013, 8(3):140-145
DOI:10.4103/1858-5000.132602  
Background: The chromatographic separation of aerial parts of Capparis decidua, a woody medicinal plant, afforded one shikimate derivative, two acyclic terpenoids, four fatty acids, two sterols and two lupare triterpenoids Methods: in the present study, qualitative chemical screening of ethyle ether, methanol and water extracts of Capparis decidua stems (family Cappariaceae) showed the presence of triterpenes, fatty acids, carotenoids, coumarins and basic alkaloids. The methanol extract revealed the presence of condensed tannins, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides and anthocyanins while the aqueous extract revealed the presence of saponins, polyurenoids, condensed tannins, alkaloids and anthocyanine. All extracts were devoid of anthracene glycosides, flavanoids and reducing compounds. The antimicrobial activity of chloroform, methanol and water extract were studied in vitro against two standard gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus), two standard gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two standard fungal organisms (Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans) using the cup-plate agar diffusion method. Results: The results showed that the extracts had antimicrobial activity against at least two of the tested standard organisms; methanol extract was found to be highly active against the standard gram positive bacteria and Candida albicans, followed by the chloroform extract. The least antimicrobial activity was associated with the aqueous extract. Ten fractions were obtained when the chloroform extract was fractionated by the Preparative Thin Layer Chromatography (PTLC), their antimicrobial activity was studied in vitro against two standard gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus). Conclusion: The methanol extract fractionation gave five fractions and their antimicrobial activity was studied against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans.
  3,204 292 1
Carotid artery disease in Sudanese diabetic patients asymptomatic for cerebrovascular disease
Elrayah M. Mustafa, Rabab I. Elhassan
July-September 2013, 8(3):156-158
DOI:10.4103/1858-5000.132610  
Introduction: Diabetes is a risk factor in the development of atherosclerosis and likewise carotid artery disease which can be detected usingcarotid ultrasound examinations.Methodology: The study undertaken in a group of asymptomatic type 2 Sudanese diabetic patients to assess the prevalence of carotid artery disease. Intima-media thickness (IMT), the presence and degree of carotid artery stenosis were assessed by ultrasonography in 63 diabetic subjects. The findings of ultrasound examinations were correlated to the patients' clinical information. Results: Abnormal IMT found in 65% of the studied subjects a degree of carotid artery stenosis in 31.7%. More than 50% carotid artery stenosis in 14.3%. The results also showed association between the abnormal findings increasing age, female gender, prolonged duration of the disease. Presence of carotid artery disease in diabetic patients asymptomatic for cerebrovascular disease, the increasing frequency of these abnormalities with increasing subject's age, and duration of illness was also investigated and it was found to decrease when the concentration is increased.
  1,608 146 -
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