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   Table of Contents - Current issue
April-June 2017
Volume 12 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 41-80

Online since Thursday, May 24, 2018

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The relationships between serum prolactin level and semen analysis parameters among patients attended the reproductive health center, Khartoum 2016–2017 p. 41
Nada Daffalla Ahmed, Humeda Suekit Ahmed
Introduction: This study aimed to determinate the effects of serum prolactin (PRL) level on semen analysis parameters (semen volume, sperm count, sperm motility, and sperm morphology). Subjects and Methods: This study was observational descriptive retrospective cross-sectional study. The study included 212 male patients selected by systematic random sampling from all patients who attended the reproductive health-care center in Khartoum. Data were collected from the all participants files. Serum PRL level and semen analysis parameters were obtained from laboratory records. Participants were classified into hyperprolactinemic and normal PRL level groups according to their serum PRL level. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science version 23. Descriptive data were presented as mean/median ± standard deviation/standard error of mean (SEM) or percentages. Independent t-test was used to determine the differences in semen analysis parameters between the two study groups. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Our study showed high level of PRL hormone among study participants (median = 543.0, SEM = 43.1 ml IU/L). There were significant differences in sperm motility and morphology between normal and hyperprolactinemic patients (P = 0.05 and 0.01, respectively). However, there were no significant differences in semen volume or sperm count between the two study groups. There were negative significant correlations between the PRL level and percentage of motile sperms (P = 0.001) and the percentage of normal morphology sperms (P = 0.001). However, there were no significant correlations between PRL level and sperm count or semen volume. Conclusion: Hyperprolactinemia in males causes significant changes in semen contents which may explain infertility in those patients.
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Prevalence and knowledge of antibiotics misuse and resistance in poultry and livestock in Khartoum State - Sudan p. 45
Mekaiel A Ishak, Hassan Mohamed Ali, Salah Ibrahim Kheder
Introduction: The irrational use of antibiotics could be noticed during prescribing and dispensing of antibiotics or when the drug is misused by the patients themselves. Misuse is also noticed at veterinary practice related to/or in food production of animal source. The vast majority of livestock antibiotics are used not only for therapeutic purposes but also for prophylaxis and enhancement of growth. Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate the prevalence of antibiotic misuse and resistance in Khartoum state, and to assess the knowledge and awareness of poultry producers and consumers regarding the production and hygiene of animal-derived foods. Methodology: A descriptive, analytical, observational, cross-sectional study was done in Khartoum. The study covered 130 poultry producers and 130 consumers of poultry meats. The data were collected using two sets of structured interviews one for poultry producers and veterinary workers and the other for consumers of poultry meat to obtain information on the use of antibiotics for animals and the perception about the induced antibiotic resistance in humans due to misuse of veterinary antibiotics in poultry. Furthermore, clinical laboratories were visited to obtain the information about the cases resistant to antibiotics. Results: This study reveals that 48% of the producers were found using antibiotics for medical treatment, 37% used antibiotics for prophylaxis, and 8% used antibiotics together with other interventions to stimulate growth and gain weight for their livestock. As for butchering, 68% of the producers agreed that the production department always commits to slaughtering regulation. However, 48% of the participants claim that the marketing department interferes with the veterinary department decisions in a way that is not consistent with the slaughtering or production control measures. This interference is the major cause of the implications that accompany the production finishing process. As a result of this irrational practice, the resistant types of pathogens in human have been found as follows, 95% resistant to co-trimoxazole, 89% to norfloxacin, 81% to cephalexin, 75% to tetracycline, 69% to pefloxacin, 65% to nalidixic acid, 59% to ciprofloxacin, and 46% resistant to ofloxacin. Most of the consumers have good knowledge about chemicals additives given to food-producing animals. They are also quite aware that the irrational use of these chemicals can lead to negative effects on human's health. Discussion: Wide ranges of antibiotics, belonging to different classes of drugs were applied. It is perceived that these antibiotics are used also in humans, sub-therapeutic doses or traces of these antibiotics might reach healthy humans by the food chain which gives a chance to the resistant strain of bacteria to develop, or might cause allergic reactions to susceptible individuals. High resistant rates to antibiotics were observed. It is obvious that antibiotics are used for treatment and prophylaxis as well as growth promoter in the absence of clear protocols to treat food animals or authorities to control this irrational behavior. Conclusion: Relying heavily on antibiotics to ensure medical, nutritional, and economic security will simultaneously reduce their usefulness with overuse and ill-advised use. There is high awareness about antibiotic resistance arises in animal husbandry among animal producers and consumers, but there is no national measures against this growing problem of “antibiotic resistance.”
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Food hygiene and safety practices of mobile food vendors in Benin City, Nigeria p. 51
Alphonsus Rukevwe Isara, Jennifer Oghogho Osagie, Nosakhare Omodamwen, Iziegbe Sonia Omorodion
Background: There is growing evidence that the consumption of street foods is increasingly cutting across people of all socioeconomic groups in many countries of the world. This study was conducted to assess the food hygiene and safety practices of mobile food vendors in Benin City, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among mobile food vendors in Benin City, Nigeria. A structured, pretested, interviewer-administered questionnaire and an observational checklist were the data collection tools. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS version 20.0 software. Results: Two hundred and fifty respondents with a mean age of 31.7 ± 8.7 years were studied. There were 24 (9.6%) males and 226 (90.4%) females. Most of them knew regular handwashing practices with soap and water (95.5%), proper covering of stored food (92.8%), proper cleaning of cutting/sale surfaces (89.6%), and storage of food at appropriate temperature (79.6%). Forty-seven (18.8%) respondents kept long finger nails and 58 (23.2%) blew air into the cellophane. Handwashing before and after serving food was practiced by 115 (46.0%) respondents, 14 (5.6%) used hand gloves while serving food, 143 (57.3%) properly covered their hair, and 205 (82.0%) concurrently served food and collected money from consumers. The utensils used in serving food were considered clean in majority (217 [86.8%]) of the food vendors. Conclusion: There was a high level of knowledge of food hygiene among the mobile food vendors but their food safety practices were poor. This finding suggests that the street foods sold in Benin City may be heavily contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms.
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Serum bladder tumor antigen levels in subjects with sickle cell anemia: A preliminary report p. 56
Patrick O Manafa, Chide E Okocha, John C Aneke, Chijindi Nwakor, Nancy C Ibeh, George O Chukwuma, Ejike K Nwene
Background: Sickle cell anemia (SCA) has been linked with the occurrence of some tumors, including that of the urological system; the serum bladder tumor antigen has been shown to be a surrogate marker for bladder carcinoma. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate serum bladder tumor antigen in SCA subjects in comparison with disease severity and levels in subjects with other hemoglobin phenotypes. Subjects and Methods: A total of 50 subjects were randomly recruited which comprised of 20 homozygous SCA subjects in steady state, 20 heterozygous hemoglobin AS (HbAS), and 10 hemoglobin AA (HbAA) subjects. Five milliliters of venous blood was collected from each participant for hemoglobin type confirmation and estimation of bladder tumor antigen levels, using cellulose acetate hemoglobin electrophoresis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Disease severity scoring was based on the earlier report of Okocha et al. Results: The mean serum level of bladder tumor antigen was significantly lower in SCA compared with HbAS and HbAA subjects (23.12 ± 3.75 ng/ml vs. 29.60 ± 3.80 ng/ml and 34.65 ± 4.05 ng/ml, P < 0.001, respectively). Correspondingly, the mean serum bladder tumor antigen levels were significantly lower in HbAS compared with HbAA subjects (P < 0.001). Serum bladder tumor antigen level was not significantly correlated with disease severity in subjects with SCA (r = −0.267, P = 0.318). Conclusion: The low serum levels of bladder tumor antigen in subjects with SCA may indicate a lower risk of bladder carcinoma.
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Postcesarean section patient's concept and satisfaction about types of anesthesia p. 61
Gamal Abdalla Mohamed Ejaimi, Fatimah A Alzhrani, Waleed H Alfaifi, Sittelnissa Saeed Ahmed, Faris Alzhrani, Ali A Alzhrani, Faisal Massoud Al Ghadam, Yousif M Elamin Alhindi
Background: The aim of this study was to determine and assess the awareness, concept, and satisfaction of pregnant women about anesthesia for cesarean section (C/S) and to evaluate the role of health staff, including anesthesia, in providing safe, efficient anesthesia. Materials and Methods: A total of 170 post-C/S women admitted to the postnatal wards or attended the postnatal clinics at Abha Maternity and Children Hospital, Khamis Mushayt City Hospital, and Khamis Mushayt Military Hospital were included. A self-administered questionnaire was designed. It comprised personal characteristics, types of anesthesia, satisfaction about anesthesia, and complications during and after the procedure. Results: The use of general anesthesia among patients with previous C/S was found to be higher than spinal anesthesia. However, in the current C/S, the use of spinal anesthesia had increased to reach 53.5%. Excellent satisfaction about anesthesia was demonstrated by only 43.5% of patients, while 29.4% and 17% stated good and fair satisfaction, respectively. A 9.4% of patients demonstrated poor satisfaction. Breastfeeding within the day of the procedure and 1 day after was 29.4% and 34.1%, respectively. Conclusion: Utilization of general anesthesia as a technique for C/S was high among parturients. Excellent satisfaction about the procedure and anesthesia was found to be low. Regional anesthesia should be used for C/S whenever it is feasible. Implementation of modes of birth delivery and modalities of anesthesia for C/S in the antenatal program is recommended.
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Comorbid depression in sickle cell disease: An overview of determinants and need for early detection p. 66
John C Aneke, Chide E Okocha
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a chronic illness, characterized by periods of painful crises, frequent hospitalizations, and multiorgan dysfunction; patients are frequently exposed to diverse psychological stressors and insults which adversely impact on overall quality of life (QOL) and survival. The following key words: “sickle cell disease,” “psychological dysfunction,”, “psychopathology,” “co-morbid depression,” “quality of life,” “disease severity,” “treatment,” and “clinical outcome” were used for literature search on PubMed, PubMed Central, Google Scholar, African Index Medicus, and Scopus database sources. No limitation as to the year of publication was applied and the oldest paper retrieved was published in 1989. The search was restricted to depression occurring in the background of SCD and publications in English language. The studies retrieved dealt mainly on the epidemiology, etiopathogenesis, and treatment of co-morbid depression in SCD, whereas papers dealing primarily with depression not related to SCD were rejected. All papers identified were assessed by the authors with a view to highlighting the prevalence and effect of depression on the clinical course of SCD. Comorbid depression was shown to constitute a significant burden in subjects living with SCD; the prevalence of which increases with increasing disease severity. In affected SCD patients, it has adverse effects on QOL and disease course. The need for early detection of comorbid depression in patients with SCD is hereby emphasized, with a view to instituting appropriate treatment geared toward ameliorating its adverse effect on disease morbidity.
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An overview of abnormal pulmonary venous connection in children p. 74
Mustafa O Asani, Usman M Sani
Abnormal pulmonary venous connection represents a rare variant of congenital heart disease, in which the pulmonary veins fail to make their normal connection to the left atrium. Instead, they connect and drain anomalously into the systemic venous circulation. The abnormal connection could be partial, when one or more but not all the pulmonary veins connect anomalously or total, when all the pulmonary veins connect anomalously. Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) is by far the most common and most severe lesion, with a reported prevalence ranging between 1.5% and 2%. Its hemodynamics and clinical features are variable, and diagnosis can be challenging especially in resource-limited setting. This review discusses the embryology and pathogenesis of abnormal pulmonary venous connection, with emphasis on TAPVC. The clinical manifestations and various diagnostic options are also highlighted.
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