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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 45-50

Prevalence and knowledge of antibiotics misuse and resistance in poultry and livestock in Khartoum State - Sudan


Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, National University, Khartoum, Sudan

Correspondence Address:
Salah Ibrahim Kheder
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, National University, Khartoum
Sudan
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DOI: 10.4103/summ.summ_43_17

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Introduction: The irrational use of antibiotics could be noticed during prescribing and dispensing of antibiotics or when the drug is misused by the patients themselves. Misuse is also noticed at veterinary practice related to/or in food production of animal source. The vast majority of livestock antibiotics are used not only for therapeutic purposes but also for prophylaxis and enhancement of growth. Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate the prevalence of antibiotic misuse and resistance in Khartoum state, and to assess the knowledge and awareness of poultry producers and consumers regarding the production and hygiene of animal-derived foods. Methodology: A descriptive, analytical, observational, cross-sectional study was done in Khartoum. The study covered 130 poultry producers and 130 consumers of poultry meats. The data were collected using two sets of structured interviews one for poultry producers and veterinary workers and the other for consumers of poultry meat to obtain information on the use of antibiotics for animals and the perception about the induced antibiotic resistance in humans due to misuse of veterinary antibiotics in poultry. Furthermore, clinical laboratories were visited to obtain the information about the cases resistant to antibiotics. Results: This study reveals that 48% of the producers were found using antibiotics for medical treatment, 37% used antibiotics for prophylaxis, and 8% used antibiotics together with other interventions to stimulate growth and gain weight for their livestock. As for butchering, 68% of the producers agreed that the production department always commits to slaughtering regulation. However, 48% of the participants claim that the marketing department interferes with the veterinary department decisions in a way that is not consistent with the slaughtering or production control measures. This interference is the major cause of the implications that accompany the production finishing process. As a result of this irrational practice, the resistant types of pathogens in human have been found as follows, 95% resistant to co-trimoxazole, 89% to norfloxacin, 81% to cephalexin, 75% to tetracycline, 69% to pefloxacin, 65% to nalidixic acid, 59% to ciprofloxacin, and 46% resistant to ofloxacin. Most of the consumers have good knowledge about chemicals additives given to food-producing animals. They are also quite aware that the irrational use of these chemicals can lead to negative effects on human's health. Discussion: Wide ranges of antibiotics, belonging to different classes of drugs were applied. It is perceived that these antibiotics are used also in humans, sub-therapeutic doses or traces of these antibiotics might reach healthy humans by the food chain which gives a chance to the resistant strain of bacteria to develop, or might cause allergic reactions to susceptible individuals. High resistant rates to antibiotics were observed. It is obvious that antibiotics are used for treatment and prophylaxis as well as growth promoter in the absence of clear protocols to treat food animals or authorities to control this irrational behavior. Conclusion: Relying heavily on antibiotics to ensure medical, nutritional, and economic security will simultaneously reduce their usefulness with overuse and ill-advised use. There is high awareness about antibiotic resistance arises in animal husbandry among animal producers and consumers, but there is no national measures against this growing problem of “antibiotic resistance.”


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